|Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC)|
The CPPCC is an organization of the united front with wide representation. It is an important organ of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC). It is composed of the CPC, other political parties, mass organizations, and representative public personages from all walks of life, representatives of compatriots of
In commemoration of the International Labor's Day, the CPC Central Committee issued a call on April 30, 1948, proposing the convening of a new political consultative conference to set up a democratic coalition government. This call won an immediate appreciative response from various democratic parties, people's organizations, democrats with no party affiliations and overseas Chinese, who participated in the preparation of the new political consultative conference later.
On September 21-30, 1949, the First CPPCC Plenary Session was held in Beiping (now
Exercising the functions and power of the National People's Congress (NPC), which had not yet been established, the session proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of
During the meeting, it was decided to make Beijing the capital of the republic, designate the five-star red flag as the national flag, declare the song of "March of the Volunteers'' as the national anthem and the common era calendar was adopted.
During the session, the chairman, vice-chairmen and members of the Central People's Government, as well as the first National Committee of the CPPCC were elected. Mao Zedong was made the first chairman of the CPPCC National Committee.
On June 14-23, 1950, the Second Session of the First CPPCC National Committee was held.
At the meeting, the Draft Law of Land Reforms of the People's Republic of
The meeting greatly promoted CPPCC's self-construction, participation in the deliberation and administration of State affairs and political consultation. In addition, the pattern of New China's national emblem was also decided at the meeting.
On December 21-25, 1954, the First Session of the Second CPPCC National Committee was held.
The Constitution of the CPPCC was adopted at the meeting. According to the document, the Common Program should be replaced by the country's constitution.
Chairman Mao Zedong in 1956 wrote the principle of "long-term co-existence and mutual supervision" to define the relationship between CPC and the country's non-Communist parties in his article entitled "On Ten Relationships."
In January 1982, the National United Front Working Conference added "utter devotion, honor and responsibility'' to the original guideline of "long-term co-existence and mutual supervision."
On August 6, 1965, the Fourth CPPCC National Committee held a tea party in honor of Li Zongren, a prominent Kuomintang politician, his wife Guo Dejie and also Cheng Siyuan, who had just returned from overseas.
In February 1978, CPPCC restored its work after the "cultural revolution" (1966-76).
On June 15, 1979, Deng Xiaoping, chairman of the Fifth CPPCC National Committee, said during the opening of the second session of the committee that
In December 1983, the Third Session of the Standing Committee of the Sixth CPPCC National Committee passed an important report that corrected the mistreatments of some CPPCC members during the "cultural revolution."
On April 10, 1988, Li Xiannian, chairman of the Seventh CPPCC National Committee, said on the closing of the committee's first session that political consultation and supervision of government operation should become a system.
On April 12, 1988, the First Session of the Standing Committee of the Seventh CPPCC National Committee decided to establish 13 special committees to make political consultation and supervision a system.
On March 8-19, 1994, the Second Session of the Eighth CPPCC National Committee revised the Constitution of CPPCC for the third time in history. The latest revised CPPCC constitution added participation in the deliberation and administration of State affairs into the main functions of CPPCC.
In January 1995, the Ninth Session of the Standing Committee of the Eighth CPPCC National Committee adopted the Regulations of the CPPCC National Committee on Political Consultation, Democratic Supervision and Participation in the Deliberation and Administration of State Affairs.
In March 1998, the First Session of the Ninth CPPCC National Committee was held in
The present National Committee is composed of members of 34 units, i.e., the CPC, China Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang, China Democratic League, China Democratic National Construction Association, China Association for the Promotion of Democracy, Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party, China Zhi Gong Dang, Jiusan Society, Taiwan Democratic Self-government League, public personages without party affiliation, the Communist League of China, All-China Federation of Trade Unions, All-China Federation of Women, All-China Federation of Youth, All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce, China Association of Science and Technology, All-China Friendship Federation of Taiwan Compatriots, All-China Federation of Returned Overseas Chinese, representatives from the cultural and art circles, the fields of science, technology, social science, economics, agriculture, education, physical culture, journalism, publishing, medicine, social welfare, religion, and among ethnic minorities and the circle of friendship with foreign countries, specially invited people from Hong Kong, Macao and other specially invited personage. The present National Committee has 2,196 members, among whom 290 are members of the Standing Committee.
The eight non-Communist parties are those established before the founding of the People's Republic of
Officially founded on January 1, 1948, its main constituents at the time were former Kuomintang members for democracy and other patriotic personages. Their political stand was to overthrow the dictatorial rule of the Kuomintang and realize independence, democracy and peace in
Its Constitution revised in November 1988 stipulates that its political program at the present stage is to lead all party members, unite patriots living in
Its members come from mainly four areas: Those with relations with the Kuomintang, those with relations with people of all walks of life in
The party has a membership of 60,000 and He Luli is its chairwoman.
First established in November 1939, it took its present name in September 1944. At the time, it was a united political organization consisting of political parties and forces favoring the middle road and democracy.
In 1997 it adopted a constitution which stipulates that its program is to hold high the banner of patriotism and socialism, implement the basic line for the primary stage of socialism, safeguard stability in the society, strengthen services to national unity and strive for the promotion of socialist modernization, establishment and improvement of a market economy, enhancement of political restructuring and socialist spiritual civilization, emancipation and development of productive forces, consolidation and expansion of the united patriotic front and realization of the grand goals of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
China Democratic League is mainly made up by middle-level and senior intellectuals in the fields of culture, education, science and technology. It has a membership of 144,000 and its chairman is Ding Shisun.
It was established on December 16, 1945. Its political stand at the time was to guarantee the basic political rights and human rights of citizens, protect and develop national industry and commerce and oppose the dictatorial rule of the Kuomintang.
Its present constitution calls for the implementation of the CPC's policy of focusing on economic construction, acceptance of the leadership of the CPC, persisting in the tradition of self-education, adhering to the principle of democratic centralism and carrying out the policy of multi-party cooperation and political consultation. Most of its 78,000 members are representative figures in the economic field. Its chairman is Cheng Siwei.
When it was founded on December 30, 1945, it was made up mostly by people engaged in education and publishing and patriotic figures in industry and commerce in
Its program drawn in 1988 stands for the promotion and improvement of socialist democracy, improvement of a socialist legal system, uplifting of the qualifications of the people, development of productive forces and turning
The association is mainly made up by representative intellectuals in the fields of education, culture, publishing and science. It has a membership of 73,000 and its chairman is Xu Jialu.
(5) Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party
Founded in August 1930, its main political program was to oppose the dictatorial rule of the Kuomintang and establish the power of the people.
Its present program includes the stand to accept the leadership of the CPC, adhere to multi-party cooperation and political consultation, practice democratic centralism and safeguard the rights and interests of party members and associated intellectuals.
It now has a membership of 73,000 and its chairman is Jiang Zhenghua.
China Zhi Gong Dang was founded in
According to its constitution, the party is made up mainly by the middle and upper levels of returned overseas Chinese and their relatives. Its job is to assist the CPC and the Chinese government, consolidate and develop political stability, safeguard the rights and interests of party members and associated returned overseas Chinese and their relatives, reflect their opinions and demands and practice democratic centralism.
It has a membership of nearly 18,000 and its chairman is Luo Haocai.
(7) Jiusan Society
When it was first established in May 1946, its political stand was to carry on the tradition of democracy and science, oppose the civil war and practice democratic politics.
The present program of Jiusan Society stipulates that organizationally, the party draws members from representative middle and senior level intellectuals in the fields of science, technology, higher education and medicine. It stands for the multi-party cooperation and political consultation, democratic centralism and the safeguard of the rights and interest of its members.
It has a membership of 78,000 and its chairman is Wu Jieping.
It was established on November 12,
Its present political program stands for patriotism and socialism, uniting with league members and Taiwan compatriots and striving for the acceleration of reform, opening up and socialist modernization drive, safeguarding stability and unity, improvement of socialist democracy and legal system and the realization of the peaceful unification of the motherland and "one country, two systems."
Most of the members are representative and upper level
4. Functions of CPPCC
The major function of the CPPCC is to conduct political consultation and exercise democratic supervision, organize its members from various non-Communist political parties, mass organizations and public personages from all walks of life to take part in the discussion and management of state affairs.
(1) Content and forms of political consultation
Political consultation covers socialist material and spiritual construction, the building of a democratic legal system, important policies and planning of the reform and opening up program, reports on the work of the government, national financial and fiscal budget, economic and social development planning, major issues in political life in the country, drafting of major national laws, candidates for the state proposed by the CPC Central Committee, changes in the administrative division at the provincial level, major policies in foreign affairs, major policies in regard to the unification of the motherland, major issues involving people's livelihood, affairs of common interest of the political parties, important affairs of the CPPCC and other important issues in regard to the patriotic united front.
Political consultation takes the forms of plenary sessions, standing committees and meetings of the chairmen of the National Committee of the CPPCC, discussion meetings of Standing Committee members of the CPPCC, special committee meetings of the CPC, consultation meetings participated by people from various political parties, representative public personages without political party affiliation, mass organizations, ethnic minorities and patriotic figures from different walks of life and activities of local people's political consultative conferences at various levels.
(2) Major contents of democratic supervision
Democratic supervision covers such areas as the implementation of the Constitution, laws and regulations of the state, implementation of major policies formulated by the CPC Central Committee and state organs, the implementation of the national economic and social development plans and financial budget, the conduct of duties, law observance, and honesty of state organs and their staff, the execution of decisions and the regulations of the CPPCC on the part of its units and individuals.
Democratic supervision takes the forms of plenary sessions, Standing Committee meetings and meetings of the chairmen of the CPPCC submitting proposals to the CPC Central Committee and the State Council; various special committees of the CPPCC putting forward suggestions and reports; inspection, proposal, exposing and other forms of criticism and suggestion by individual CPPCC members; taking part in investigations organized by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council as well as activities organized by local people's political consultative conferences.
(3) Main contents of taking part in and managing state affairs
This includes organizing investigations and research of issues that the general public is concerned with, causing the attention of the CPC committees and departments of the State Council and which the CPPCC is capable of doing; actively making constructive suggestions to CPC and the government at various levels, maximizing the role of CPPCC members and their specialty to offer suggestions and services to the program of reform, opening up and the modernization drive.
5. Organizational Principles of CPPCC
All political parties and mass organizations who support the charter of the CPPCC may sit on the National Committee or local committees, upon agreement by the National Committee or local committees after deliberation.
Individuals, invited by the National Committee or the standing committees of local committees, may also become members of the National Committee or local committees.
The relationship between the National Committee and local committees and between higher level committees and lower level committees is one of guidance.
Local committees have the obligation to observe and carry out national decisions adopted by the National Committee and lower level committees have the obligation to observe and carry out regional decisions adopted by the higher level committees.
All units and individuals taking part in the CPPCC have the right to take part in political consultation, democratic supervision, discussion and management of state affairs, through the meetings, organization and activities of the CPPCC.
Decisions of the plenary session and Standing Committee of the National Committee and local committees will become effective only after the majority of the committee members have voted in their favor.
All participating units and individuals have the obligation to observe and carry out the decisions. In case of different opinions, they may state their reservation on the precondition of firmly implementing them.
Participating units and individuals who have seriously violated the charter of the CPPCC or the decisions of the plenary sessions or Standing Committee shall be disciplined by the National Committee or standing committees of local committees including warning up to stripping them of their qualifications for joining the CPPCC.
6. The National Committee
The number and specific candidacy of the participating units and members of the National Committee are decided by the Standing Committee of the outgoing National Committee of the CPPCC.
During every term of office, when it is necessary to increase or change the number or candidacy of the participating units or members, it is to be decided by the Standing Committee of the present National Committee of the CPPCC.
The National Committee serves for a term of five years and holds a plenary session once every year.
The National Committee has a chairman, vice chairmen and secretary-general. It sets up a Standing Committee which presides over the work of the National Committee.
The Standing Committee is composed of the chairman, vice chairmen, secretary-general and members. Candidacy of members to the Standing Committee is proposed by political parties, mass organizations, and people representing various walks of life of the CPPCC, and elected by the plenary session of the National Committee. The chairman of the National Committee presides over the work of the Standing Committee and the vice chairmen and secretary-general assist the chairman in his (her) work.
The meeting of the chairmen is composed of the chairman, vice chairmen and secretary-general and deals with the important aspects of the day-to-day work of the Standing Committee.
7. Local Committees
The provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, cities divided into districts, counties, autonomous counties, as well as cities not divided into districts and districts under the jurisdiction of cities, where there are conditions for setting up the CPPCC, shall establish proper organizations of the CPPCC.
At present there are more than 3,000 CPPCC local committees at various levels made up by a total membership of over half a million.
Local committees of the CPPCC serve a term of five years.
The composition, election, function, major working organs of local committees and their standing committees should correspond to those of the National Committee.
8. 10th CPPCC National Committee Leadership
Chairman: Jia Qinglin
Jia Qinglin, male, Han nationality, a native of
1956-1958: Student majoring in the industrial enterprise planning in
1958-1962: Student majoring in electric motor and appliance design and manufacture of the Department of Electric Power of Hebei Engineering College.
1962-1969: Technician of the Complete Plant Bureau of the First Machine-Building Industry Ministry and deputy secretary of its CYLC organization.
1969-1971: Did manual work in the May 7th
1971-1973: Technician of the Policy Research Office of the General Office of the First Machine-Building Industry Ministry.
1973-1978: Chief of the Product Management Bureau of the First Ministry of Machine-building Industry.
1978-1983: General manager of China National Machinery and Equipment Import and Export Corporation.
1983-1985: Director of Taiyuan Heavy Machinery Plant and secretary of its Party committee.
1985-1986: Member of the Standing Committee of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee and its deputy secretary.
1986-1988: Deputy secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee and head of the Organization Department of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee.
1988-1990: Deputy secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee, president of the
1990-1991: Deputy secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee, deputy governor and acting governor of
1991-1993: Deputy secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee and governor of
1993-1994: Secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee and governor of
1994-1996: Secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee and chairman of the Standing Committee of the Fujian Provincial People's Congress.
1996-1997: Deputy secretary of the CPC Beijing Municipal Committee, vice-mayor, acting mayor and mayor of
1997-1999: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, secretary of the CPC Beijing Municipal Committee and mayor of
1999-2002: Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and secretary of the CPC Beijing Municipal Committee.
2002-: Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee.
He was member of the 14th and 15th CPC Central Committees and member of the Political Bureau of the 15th CPC Central Committee. He is member of the 16th CPC Central Committee, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the 16th CPC Central Committee.